Sun in Vedic Astrology
The Sun is said to signify the self (the soul). He also signifies the father of the person. This broadly means that matters relating to the self and father are to be judged from the position of the Sun in the horoscope. That is to say if somebody wants to know about the experiences, his father will have at a particular date, you as an astrologer, will look into his horoscope and note the position of the Sun and from the horoscope and answer the query about the father. In astrological language the same is explained as the Sun is Atmakaraka and Pithrukaraka (meaning the significator of soul and father) .
Among the planets the Sun has the status of the king. Power and authority are with the Sun. Respiration, mouth, throat, spleen, conscience, intelligence, individuality, courage, paternal matters, government, devotion to God, leadership, ability to withstand suffering, immunity, fame, self-reliance, liberal attitude, honour, progressive qualities, trustworthiness etc. are all indicated by the Sun. If the Sun is favourable and powerful in the horoscope the native will enjoy all the above qualities and effects. If the Still is weak in the horoscope all the above aspects will be weak too and the results will be harmful to the above aspects. For example a weak Sun in the horoscope indicates strained relation with the father, feeble-mindedness, trouble from government, ailments to chest, throat, spleen and other parts of the body Signified by Sun, lesser immunity to withstand diseases, and cheating mentality etc. The Sun is the significator of many more items.
Astrologically, the Sun is considered to be tall, fiery in nature, with yellow eyes, dark brown colour, scanty hair, bald head, bilious nature. Indicator of father, personal magnetism, vitality, masculine, malefic, copper colour, ego, royal, philosophical tendency, money lenders, will power, authority and position. He rules fuel, hides and skin, wool, weapons, silk cloth, pungent flavour, husk of grains, gold, fire, poisons, medicines, doctors, kings and statesman and wheat. Sun is producer, sower and developer of seeds. Sun is called father of the world. He is soul of universe, power to resist disease, pearl, wood, lion, strength, worship of lord Shiva, thorny trees, benevolence of king (government), magistrate, gold ornaments, physician, electric current, ambassador, ophthalmology.
Places ruled by the Sun are: Open places, range of mountains and hills, forest, capital towns and places of worship, Shiva temple, ocean, courts, exhibitions, social gatherings, fort, region where there is no water, eastern quarter.
Parts of Body
The parts of body over which he has control are the head, stomach, bones, heart, arteries (blood circulation), eyes brain, throat, spleen and strength of tissues, belly.
Diseases that are caused by him are blood pressure, high fever, cerebral disorders, eye diseases, throat, ear and nose diseases, consumption and dysentery are caused by him when he is in watery signs afflicted by malefic planets in unfavourable houses.